Evolution of Solid Waste Management Policy Landscape in Kenya: Analysis of evolvement of policy priorities and strategies (City level vulnerability assessment)

Introduction: Since independence, there have been various policy frameworks developed to guide the management of solid wastes in Kenya. Analysis of the progressive development of the policy landscape would be useful to inform the implementation of existing policies and the formulation of future policies relevant to solid waste management in the country.  Objectives: To explore the evolution of solid waste management policies in Kenya from the perspective of policy priorities and strategies for solid waste management that address health outcomes. Methods:  This study was an integrative synthesis of the policy priorities and strategies stipulated by the major solid waste management policies in Kenya since independence and how they address SWM associated health outcomes. The synthesis addressed the evolvement, devolvement and segmentation of solid waste management policies as well as the institutional mechanisms for policy processes and external policies shaping the policy landscape. Results:  Analysis of the progressive development of policy architecture indicated that solid waste management policies in Kenya has evolved to specificity in terms of focus, functions and scope. There is a magnificent shift from focusing criminalizing offences to promoting good practices; from generic Acts to specific ones; and from centralized mandates to more decentralized responsibilities. The roles of local level implementation mechanisms is also increasing. However, the environment perspective is more emphasized than the health and economic perspectives of solid waste management principles.   Conclusion: Despite the progressive and chronological development of solid waste management policy priorities and strategies, their focus on environment dominates over health outcomes.