In African cities, orienting risk management towards a developmental agenda can
confront the root causes of poverty and risk. Transition to an integrated approach has
the most chance of success when it combines interventions working on the risk culture
of a city, which include planning and specific sectorial and local decision-making
processes. Risk cultures that prioritise and combine integrated poverty reduction
and risk management with examples of successful outcomes of decision making at
sectorial and practical levels can be effective and make backsliding more difficult.