This Working Paper examines the role of civil society in urban resilience policy and practice in Nairobi, Kenya, within the transition period to a new devolved governance system. It explores how the civil society interacts with climate and risk science, and evaluates how devolved governance in Kenya has affected the capacity of the civil society to perform its role. Through key informant interviews with leaders of the civil society, the private sector and the government, the study identifies eleven roles of the civil society in urban resilience. It concludes that a robust legislative framework alone is not adequate to enable the participation of the civil society in urban resilience building. It argues for building the civil society’s capacity to engage with both the concept or urban resilience and the new devolved system of governance.