Developing risk or resilience? Effects of slum upgrading on the social contract and on social cohesion in Kibera, Nairobi

In Kibera, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya, three major development efforts are working to improve living conditions for the residents: the Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme (KENSUP) Kibera pilot; the Nairobi Railway Relocation Action Plan (The Railway Project); and the National Youth Service (NYS)-led Kibera Slum Upgrade Initiative. This brief describes these initiatives and assesses how each has affected the social contract and social cohesion to date. Interventions such as these can reduce conflict, crime, insecurity, flood risks, and strengthen resilience in dense and complex urban environments.